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1260-1328), the Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel (1653-1706), the sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920), rapper Clueso (Thomas Hübner) (1980-), and Gunda Niemann (1966- ), three-times Olympic speed skating gold-medal winner. The earliest evidence of human settlement dates from the prehistoric era; archaeological finds from the north of Erfurt revealed human traces from the paleolithic period, ca.100,000 BCE The town is first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt": in that year, Saint Boniface wrote to Pope Zachary to inform him that he had established three dioceses in central Germany, one of them "in a place called Erphesfurt, which for a long time has been inhabited by pagan natives." All three dioceses (the other two were Würzburg and Büraburg) were confirmed by Zachary the next year, though in 755 Erfurt was brought into the diocese of Mainz.Between 14, a second and higher city wall was established.In 1483, a first city fortress was built on Cyriaksburg hill in the southwestern part of the town.

During the 10th and 11th centuries both the Emperor and the Electorate of Mainz held some privileges in Erfurt.Erfurt hosts the second-largest trade fair in eastern Germany (after Leipzig) as well as the public television children’s channel Ki Ka.The city is situated on the Via Regia, a medieval trade and pilgrims' road network.The German kings had an important monastery on Petersberg hill and the Archbishops of Mainz collected taxes from the people.Around 1100, some people became free citizens by paying the annual "" (liberation tax), which marks a first step in becoming an independent city.

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